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7 x 10, illustrated
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Artificial Life


Artificial Life is the official journal of the International Society for Artificial Life (ISAL). Each issue features international research that spans the hierarchy of biological organization, including studies of the origin of life, self-assembly, growth and development, evolutionary and ecological dynamics, animal and robot behavior, social organization, and cultural evolution.

Table of Contents

Vol. 5, Issue 2 - Spring 1999


Editor's Introduction: Stigmergy
pp. 95-96
Abstract | PDF (48.29 KB)
A Brief History of Stigmergy
pp. 97-116
Abstract | PDF (714.91 KB)
Decentralized Control of Construction Behavior in Paper Wasps: An Overview of the Stigmergy Approach
pp. 117-136
Abstract | PDF (326.62 KB)
Ant Algorithms for Discrete Optimization
pp. 137-172
Abstract | PDF (327.91 KB)
Stigmergy, Self-Organization, and Sorting in Collective Robotics
pp. 173-202
Abstract | PDF (531.3 KB)