Artificial Life is the official journal of the International Society for Artificial Life (ISAL). Each issue features international research that spans the hierarchy of biological organization, including studies of the origin of life, self-assembly, growth and development, evolutionary and ecological dynamics, animal and robot behavior, social organization, and cultural evolution.
Table of Contents
Vol. 5, Issue 2 - Spring 1999
Editor's Introduction: Stigmergy
A Brief History of Stigmergy
Decentralized Control of Construction Behavior in Paper Wasps: An Overview of the Stigmergy Approach
Ant Algorithms for Discrete Optimization
Stigmergy, Self-Organization, and Sorting in Collective Robotics