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Evolutionary Computation

Summer 1997, Vol. 5, No. 2, Pages 143-180
(doi: 10.1162/evco.1997.5.2.143)
© 1997 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Evolutionary Program Induction Directed by Logic Grammars
Article PDF (2.15 MB)
Abstract

Program induction generates a computer program that can produce the desired behavior for a given set of situations. Two of the approaches in program induction are inductive logic programming (ILP) and genetic programming (GP). Since their formalisms are so different, these two approaches cannot be integrated easily, although they share many common goals and functionalities. A unification will greatly enhance their problem-solving power. Moreover, they are restricted in the computer languages in which programs can be induced. In this paper, we present a flexible system called LOGENPRO (The LOgic grammar-based GENetic PROgramming system) that uses some of the techniques of GP and ILP. It is based on a formalism of logic grammars. The system applies logic grammars to control the evolution of programs in various programming languages and represent context-sensitive information and domain-dependent knowledge. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate that LOGENPRO can emulate GP and GP with automatically defined functions (ADFs). Moreover, LOGENPRO can employ knowledge such as argument types in a unified framework. The experiments show that LOGENPRO has superior performance to that of GP and GP with ADFs when more domain-dependent knowledge is available. We have applied LOGENPRO to evolve general recursive functions for the even-n-parity problem from noisy training examples. A number of experiments have been performed to determine the impact of domain-specific knowledge and noise in training examples on the speed of learning.