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Computational Linguistics

Hwee Tou Ng, Editor
June 2015, Vol. 41, No. 2, Pages 265-308
(doi: 10.1162/COLI_a_00221)
© 2015 Association for Computational Linguistics
A Statistical Parsing Framework for Sentiment Classification
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We present a statistical parsing framework for sentence-level sentiment classification in this article. Unlike previous works that use syntactic parsing results for sentiment analysis, we develop a statistical parser to directly analyze the sentiment structure of a sentence. We show that complicated phenomena in sentiment analysis (e.g., negation, intensification, and contrast) can be handled the same way as simple and straightforward sentiment expressions in a unified and probabilistic way. We formulate the sentiment grammar upon Context-Free Grammars (CFGs), and provide a formal description of the sentiment parsing framework. We develop the parsing model to obtain possible sentiment parse trees for a sentence, from which the polarity model is proposed to derive the sentiment strength and polarity, and the ranking model is dedicated to selecting the best sentiment tree. We train the parser directly from examples of sentences annotated only with sentiment polarity labels but without any syntactic annotations or polarity annotations of constituents within sentences. Therefore we can obtain training data easily. In particular, we train a sentiment parser, s.parser, from a large amount of review sentences with users' ratings as rough sentiment polarity labels. Extensive experiments on existing benchmark data sets show significant improvements over baseline sentiment classification approaches.