ISBN: 9780262316026 | 804 pp. | March 1996


Toward a Science of Consciousness

The First Tucson Discussions and Debates

Scientists and philosophers are focusing more intensely than ever on the nature of our human experience, resulting in a newly coalescing field of Consciousness Studies that has become a worldwide and highly interdisciplinary phenomenon.

Toward a Science of Consciousness marks the first major gathering—a landmark event—devoted entirely to unlocking the mysteries of consciousness. It explores the whole spectrum of approaches from philosophy of mind and dream research, to neuropsychology, pharmacology, and molecular dynamics, to neural networks, phenomenological accounts, and even the physics of reality. The aim is to lay a sound scientific foundation for future research while also reaching consensus on many scattered areas of inquiry.

Following an overview, fifty-five chapters are divided into ten sections: philosophy, cognitive science, medicine/pathology, neurology, neural networks, subneural biology, quantum theory, non-locality in space and time, hierarchical organization, and phenomenology.

In addition to the editors, who are, respectively, an anesthesiologist, a psychologist, and an applied mathematician, contributors include such luminaries as David Chalmers, Michael Conrad, Avshalom Elitzur, Owen Flanagan, David Galin, John Kihlstrom, Christof Koch, Benjamin Libet, Roger Penrose, Karl Pribram, Gary Schwartz, Petra Stoerig, John Taylor, Andrew Weil, Fred Wolf, and many others.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. I. Philosophy of Mind
  3. 1. Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness

    David J. Chalmers

  4. 2. Consciousness and the Introspective Link Principle

    Güven Güzeldere

  5. 3. The Place of Qualia in the World of Science

    Leopold Stubenberg

  6. 4. The Binding Problem and Neurobiological Oscillations

    Valeri Gray Hardcastle

  7. 5. Deconstructing Dreams: The Spandrels of Sleep

    Owen Flanagan

  8. II. Cognitive Science
  9. 6. Unconscious Processes in Social Interaction

    John F. Kihlstrom

  10. 7. Efference and the Extension of Consciousness

    Thaddeus M. Cowan

  11. 8. Edelman's Biological Theory of Consciousness

    John J. Boitano

  12. 9. The Structure of Subjective Experience: Sharpen the Concepts and Terminology

    David Galin

  13. 10. The Varieties of Conscious Experience: Biological Roots and Social Usages

    Karl H. Pribram

  14. III. Medicine
  15. 11. Induction of Consciousness in the Ischemic Brain

    James E. Whinnery

  16. 12. Conflicting Communicative Behaviour in a Split-Brain Patient: Support for Dual Consciousness

    Victor Mark

  17. 13. Left Brain Says Yes, Right Brain Says No: Normative Duality in the Split Brain

    Marco Iacoboni, Jan Rayman and Eran Zaidel

  18. 14. Inkblot Testing of Commissurotomy Subjects: Contrasting Modes of Organizing Reality

    Polly Henninger

  19. 15. Evidence for Language Comprehension in a Severe "Sensory Aphasic"

    Britt Anderson and Thomas Head

  20. 16. Self-Awareness of Deficit in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Alfred W. Kaszniak and Gina DiTraglia Christensom

  21. IV. Experimental Neuroscience
  22. 17. Toward the Neuronal Substrate of Visual Consciousness

    Christof Koch

  23. 18. Visual Perception and Phenomenal Consciousness

    Petra Stoerig and Alan Covey

  24. 19. Levels of Awareness and "Awareness Without Awareness": From Data to Theory

    Gary E. Scwhartz

  25. 20. Implicit Memory During Anesthesia

    Randall C. Cork

  26. 21. Experimental Evidence for a Synchronization of Sensory Information to Conscious Experience

    Mikael Bergenheim, Håkan Johansson, Brittmarie Granlund and Jonas Pedersen

  27. 22. Positron Emission Tomography, Emotion, and Consciousness

    Eric M. Reiman, Richard D. Lane, Geoffrey L. Ahern, Gary E. Schwartz and Richard J. Davidson

  28. 23. Dimensional Complexty of Human EEG and Level of Consciousness

    Richard C. Watt

  29. 24. Collapse of a Quantum Field May Affect Brain Function

    C. M. H.Nunn, C. J. S. Clarke and B. H. Blott.

  30. 25. Neural Time Factors in Conscious and Unconscious Mental Functions

    Benjamin Libet

  31. V. Neural Networks
  32. 26. Modeling What It Is Like To Be

    John Taylor

  33. 27. Artificial "Attention" in an Oscillatory Neural Network

    Tokiko Yamanoue

  34. 28. The Emergence of Memory: Categorization Far From Equilibrium

    Andrew Wuensche

  35. VI. Subneural Biology
  36. 29. Water Clusters: Pixels of Life

    John G. Watterson.

  37. 30. Microtubular Self-Organization and Information Processing Capabilities

    J. A. Tuszyński, B. Trpisová, D. Sept and M. V. Satarić

  38. 31. Quantum Computation in the Neural Membrane: Implications for the Evolution of Consciousness

    Ron Wallace

  39. 32. Computer Simulation of Anesthetic Binding in Protein Hydrophobic Pockets

    Dyan Louria and Stuart R. Hemeroff

  40. VII. Quantum Theory
  41. 33. Consciousness and Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Danah Zohar

  42. 34. On the Quantum Mechanics of Dreams and the Emergence of Self-Awareness

    Fred Alan Wolf

  43. 35. Percolation and Collapse of Quantum Parallelism: A Model of Qualia and Choice

    Michael Conrad

  44. 36. Subcellular Quantum Optical Coherence: Implications for Consciousness

    Mari Jibu, Scott Hagan and Kunio Yasue

  45. 37. Orchestrated Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: A Model for Consciousness

    Stuart R. Hameroff and Roger Penrose

  46. VIII. Nonlocal Space and Time
  47. 38. Time and Consciousness: The Uneasy Bearing of Relativity Theory on the Mind-Body Problem

    Avshalom C. Elitzur

  48. 39. New Insights from Quantum Theory on Time, Consciousness, and Reality

    Jeff Tollaksen

  49. 40. Consciousness: A New Computational Paradigm

    Douglas J. Matzke

  50. 41. A Mathematical Strategy for a Theory of Consciousness

    Saul-Paul Sirag

  51. 42. Nonlocality on a Human Scale: Psi and Consciousness Research

    Mario Varvoglis

  52. 43. Synchronicity and Emergent Nonlocal Information in Quantum Systems

    E. M. Insinna

  53. IX. Hierarchical Organization
  54. 44. Self-Referent Mechanisms as the Neuronal Basis of Consciousness

    Erich Harth

  55. 45. A Framework for Higher-Order Cognition and Consciousness

    Nils. A. Baas

  56. 46. Bioenergetic Foundations of Consciousness

    B. Raymond Fink

  57. 47. The Hierarchical Emergence of Consciousness

    Alwyn C. Scott

  58. X. Phenomenology
  59. 48. Pharmacology of Consciousness: A Narrative of Subjective Experience

    Andrew Weil

  60. 49. What Can Music Tell Us About the Nature of the Mind? A Platonic Model

    Brian D. Josephson and Tethys Carpenter

  61. 50. Intention, Self, and Spiritual Experience: A Functional Model of Consciousness

    Arthur J. Deikman

  62. 51. Enhanced Vigilance in Guided Meditation: Implications of Altered Consciousness

    Richard P. Atkinson and Heath Earl

  63. 52. The Stream Revisited: A Process Model of Phenomenological Consciousness

    José-Luis Díaz

  64. XI. Overview
  65. 53. Three Kinds of Thinking

    I. N. Marshall

  66. 54. The Possibility of Empirical Test of Hypotheses about Consciousness

    Jean E. Burns

  67. 55. Toward a Science of Consciousness: Addressing Two Central Questions

    Willis W. Harman

  68. Postscript
  69. Contributors
  70. Index