Toward Replacement Parts for the Brain

Implantable Biomimetic Electronics as Neural Prostheses

The continuing development of implantable neural prostheses signals a new era in bioengineering and neuroscience research. This collection of essays outlines current advances in research on the intracranial implantation of devices that can communicate with the brain in order to restore sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. The contributors explore the creation of biologically realistic mathematical models of brain function, the production of microchips that incorporate those models, and the integration of microchip and brain function through neuron-silicon interfaces. Recent developments in understanding the computational and cognitive properties of the brain and rapid advances in biomedical and computer engineering both contribute to this cutting-edge research.

The book first examines the development of sensory system prostheses—cochlear, retinal, and visual implants—as the best foundation for considering the extension of neural prostheses to the central brain region. The book then turns to the complexity of neural representations, offering, among other approaches to the topic, one of the few existing theoretical frameworks for modeling the hierarchical organization of neural systems. Next, it examines the challenges of designing and controlling the interface between neurons and silicon, considering the necessity for bidirectional communication and for multiyear duration of the implant. Finally, the book looks at hardware implementations and explores possible ways to achieve the complexity of neural function in hardware, including the use of VLSI and photonic technologies.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. 1. We Made the Deaf Hear. Now What?

    Gerald E. Loeb

  3. 2. Microelectronic Array for Stimulation of Large Retinal Tissue Areas

    Dean Scribner, M. Humayun, Brian Justus, Charles Merritt, R. Klein, J. G. Howard, M. Peckerar, F. K. Perkins, E. Margalit, Kah- Guan Au Eong, J. Weiland, E. de Juan, Jr., J. Finch, R. Graham, C. Trautfield, and S. Taylor

  4. 3. Imaging Two-Dimensional Neural Activity Patterns in the Cat Visual Cortex using a Multielectrode Array

    David J. Warren, Richard A. Normann, and Alexei Koulakov

  5. 4. Brain Parts on Multiple Scales: Examples from the Auditory System

    Ellen Covey

  6. 5. A Protocol for Reading the Mind

    Howard Eichenbaum

  7. 6. Cognitive Processes in Replacement Brain Parts: A Code for All Reasons

    Robert Hampson, John Simeral, and Sam A. Deadwyler

  8. 7. Mathematical Modeling as a Basic Tool for Neuromimetic Circuits

    Gilbert A. Chauvet, P. Chauvet, and Theodore W. Berger

  9. 8. Real-Time Spatiotemporal Databases to Support Human Motor Skills

    Shahram Ghandeharizadeh

  10. 9. Long-Term Functional Contact between Nerve Cell Networks and Microelectrode Arrays

    Guenter W. Gross, Emese Dian, Edward G. Keefer, Alexandra Gramowski, and Simone Stuewe

  11. 10. Building Minimalistic Hybrid Neuroelectric Devices

    James J. Hickman

  12. 11. The Biotic/Abiotic Interface: Achievements and Foreseeable Challenges

    Roberta Diaz Brinton, Walid Sousou, Michel Baudry, Mark Thompson, and Theodore W. Berger

  13. 12. Brain-Implantable Biomimetic Electronics as a Neural Prosthesis for Hippocampal Memory Function

    Theodore W. Berger, Roberta Diaz Brinton, Vasilis Z. Marmarelis, Bing J. Sheu, and Armand R. Tanguay, Jr.

  14. 13. Brain Circuit Implementation: High-Precision Computation from Low- Precision Components

    Richard Granger

  15. 14. Hybrid Electronic/Photonic Multichip Modules for Vision and Neural Prosthetic Applications

    Armand R. Tanguay, Jr. and B. Keith Jenkins

  16. 15. Reconfigurable Processors for Neural Prostheses

    Jose Mumbru, Krishna V. Shenoy, George Panotopoulos, Suat Ay, Xin An, Fai Mok, Demetri Psaltis

  17. 16. The Coming Revolution: The Merging of Computational Neural Science and Semiconductor Engineering

    Dan Hammerstrom

  18. Contributors
  19. Index