Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain

Probing Cognition

In the last decade, the synergistic interaction of neurosurgeons, engineers, and neuroscientists, combined with new technologies, has enabled scientists to study the awake, behaving human brain directly. These developments allow cognitive processes to be characterized at unprecedented resolution: single neuron activity. Direct observation of the human brain has already led to major insights into such aspects of brain function as perception, language, sleep, learning, memory, action, imagery, volition, and consciousness. In this volume, experts document the successes, challenges, and opportunity in an emerging field.

The book presents methodological tutorials, with chapters on such topics as the surgical implantation of electrodes and data analysis techniques; describes novel insights into cognitive functions including memory, decision making, and visual imagery; and discusses insights into diseases such as epilepsy and movement disorders gained from examining single neuron activity. Finally, contributors consider future challenges, questions that are ripe for investigation, and exciting avenues for translational efforts.

Contributors: Ralph Adolphs, William S. Anderson, Arjun K. Bansal, Eric J. Behnke, Moran Cerf, Jonathan O. Dostrovsky, Emad N. Eskandar, Tony A. Fields, Itzhak Fried, Hagar Gelbard-Sagiv, C. Rory Goodwin, Clement Hamani, Chris Heller, Mojgan Hodaie, Matthew Howard III, William D. Hutchison, Matias Ison, Hiroto Kawasaki, Christof Koch, Rüdiger Köhling, Gabriel Kreiman, Michel Le Van Quyen, Frederick A. Lenz, Andres M. Lozano, Adam N. Mamelak, Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Florian Mormann, Yuval Nir, George Ojemann, Shaun R. Patel, Sanjay Patra, Linda Philpott, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, Ian Ross, Ueli Rutishauser, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Erin M. Schuman, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Richard J. Staba, Nanthia Suthana, William Sutherling, Travis S. Tierney, Giulio Tononi, Oana Tudusciuc, Charles L. Wilson

Table of Contents

  1. Open Letter to a Beginning Researcher in the Field of Human Single Neuron Investigations
  2. 1. Introduction

    Itzhak Fried, Ueli Rutishauser, Moran Cerf, and Gabriel Kreiman

  3. 2. Fifty-plus Years of Human Single Neuron Recordings: A Personal Perspective

    George Ojemann

  4. I. Methodological, Ethical, and Clinical Considerations
  5. 3. The Neurosurgical Theater of the Mind

    Itzhak Fried

  6. 4. Ethical and Practical Considerations for Human Microelectrode Recording Studies

    Adam N. Mamelak

  7. 5. Subchronic In Vivo Human Microelectrode Recording

    Richard J. Staba, Tony A. Fields, Eric J. Behnke, and Charles L. Wilson

  8. 6. Data Analysis Techniques for Human Microwire Recordings: Spike Detection and Sorting, Decoding, Relation between Neurons and Local Field Potentials

    Ueli Rutishauser, Moran Cerf, and Gabriel Kreiman

  9. II. Cognitive Neuroscience Findings and Insights
  10. 7. Single Neuron Correlates of Declarative Memory Formation and Retrieval in the Human Medial Temporal Lobe

    Ueli Rutishauser, Erin M. Schuman, and Adam N. Mamelak

  11. 8. Visual Cognitive Adventures of Single Neurons in the Human Medial Temporal Lobe

    Florian Mormann, Matias J. Ison, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, Christof Koch, Itzhak Fried, and Gabriel Kreiman

  12. 9. Navigating Our Environment: Insights from Single Neuron Recordings in the Human Brain

    Nanthia Suthana and Itzhak Fried

  13. 10. Microelectrode Studies of Human Sleep

    Yuval Nir, Michel Le Van Quyen, Giulio Tononi, and Richard J. Staba

  14. 11. Studying Thoughts and Deliberations Using Single Neuron Recordings in Humans

    Moran Cerf, Hagar Gelbard-Sagiv, and Itzhak Fried

  15. 12. Human Single Neuron Reward Processing in the Basal Ganglia and Anterior Cingulate

    Shaun R. Patel, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, and Emad N. Eskandar

  16. 13. Electrophysiological Responses to Faces in the Human Amygdala

    Ralph Adolphs, Hiroto Kawasaki, Oana Tudusciuc, Matthew Howard III, Chris Heller, William Sutherling, Linda Philpott, Ian Ross, Adam N. Mamelak, and Ueli Rutishauser

  17. 14. Human Lateral Temporal Cortical Single Neuron Activity during Language, Recent Memory, and Learning

    George Ojemann

  18. III. Clinical Neuroscience
  19. 15. Microelectrode Recordings in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery

    C. Rory Goodwin, Travis S. Tierney, Frederick A. Lenz, and William S. Anderson

  20. 16. Microstimulation Effects on Thalamic Neurons

    Sanjay Patra, William D. Hutchison, Clement Hamani, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M. Lozano, and Jonathan O. Dostrovsky

  21. 17. Human Single Unit Activity for Reach and Grasp Motor Prostheses

    Arjun K. Bansal

  22. 18. Human Single Neuron Recording as an Approach to Understand the Neurophysiology of Seizure Generation

    Andreas Schulze-Bonhage and Rüdiger Köhling

  23. IV. Conclusions
  24. 19. The Next Ten Years and Beyond

    Ueli Rutishauser, Itzhak Fried, Moran Cerf, and Gabriel Kreiman

  25. Contributors
  26. Index
  27. Color Plates