Neural Correlates of Consciousness

Empirical and Conceptual Questions

This book brings together an international group of neuroscientists and philosophers who are investigating how the content of subjective experience is correlated with events in the brain. The fundamental methodological problem in consciousness research is the subjectivity of the target phenomenon—the fact that conscious experience, under standard conditions, is always tied to an individual, first-person perspective. The core empirical question is whether and how physical states of the human nervous system can be mapped onto the content of conscious experience. The search for the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has become a highly active field of investigation in recent years. Methods such as single-cell recording in monkeys and brain imaging and electrophysiology in humans, applied to such phenomena as blindsight, implicit/explicit cognition, and binocular rivalry, have generated a wealth of data. The same period has seen the development of a number of theories about NCC location. This volume brings together the leading experimentalists and theoreticians in the field. Topics include foundational and evolutionary issues, global integration, vision, consciousness and the NMDA receptor complex, neuroimaging, implicit processes, intentionality and phenomenal volition, schizophrenia, social cognition, and the phenomenal self.

Contributors: Jackie Andrade, Ansgar Beckermann, David J. Chalmers, Francis Crick, Antonio R. Damasio, Gerald M. Edelman, Dominic ffytche, Hans Flohr, N.P. Franks, Vittorio Gallese, Melvyn A. Goodale, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Beena Khurana, Christof Koch, W.R. Lieb, Erik D. Lumer, Thomas Metzinger, Kelly J. Murphy, Romi Nijhawan, Joëlle Proust, Antti Revonsuo, Gerhard Roth, Thomas Schmidt, Wolf Singer, Giulio Tononi.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. 1. Introduction: Consciousness Research at the End of the Twentieth Century
  3. I. Foundational Issues and Conceptual Problems
  4. 2. What Is a Neural Correlate of Consciousness?

    David J. Chalmers

  5. 3. The Perennial Problem of the Reductive Explainability of Phenomenal Consciousness: C. D. Broad on the Explanatory Gap

    Ansgar Beckermann

  6. 4. Prospects for a Scientific Research Program on Consciousness

    Antti Revonsuo

  7. 5. The Evolution and Ontogeny of Consciousness

    Gerhard Roth

  8. II. Candidates for the NCC I: Representational Dynamics
  9. 6. The Unconscious Homunculus

    Francis Crick and Christof Koch

  10. 7. A Neurobiology for Consciousness

    Antonio R. Damasio

  11. 8. Phenomenal Awareness and Consciousness from a Neurobiological Perspective

    Wolf Singer

  12. 9. Reentry and the Dynamic Core: Neural Correlates of Conscious Experience

    Gerald M. Edelman and Giulio Tononi

  13. III. Candidates for the NCC II: Vision
  14. 10. Visual Perception Without Awareness: Priming Responses by Color

    Thomas Schmidt

  15. 11. Face Representation Without Conscious Processing

    Beena Khurana

  16. 12. Space in the Brain: Different Neural Substrates for Allocentric and Egocentric Frames of Reference

    Melvyn A. Goodale and Kelly J. Murphy

  17. 13. Conscious Registration of Continuous and Discrete Visual Events

    Romi Nijhawan and Beena Khurana

  18. 14. Imaging Conscious Vision

    Dominic ffytche

  19. 15. Binocular Rivalry and Human Visual Awareness

    Erik D. Lumer

  20. IV. Candidates for the NCC III: Consciousness, Anesthesia, and the NMDA Receptor Complex
  21. 16. NMDA Receptor-Mediated Computational Processes and Phenomenal Consciousness

    Hans Flohr

  22. 17. How to Understand the N in NCC

    Valerie Gray Hardcastle

  23. 18. The Role of NMDA Receptors in Consciousness: What We Learn from Anesthetic Mechanisms?

    Nicholas P. Franks and William R. Lieb

  24. 19. NMDA Receptor-Mediated Consciousness: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Effects of Anesthesia on Cognition?

    Jackie Andrade

  25. V. Toward the Neural Correlates of Selfhood, Agency, and Social Cognition
  26. 20. The Subjectivity of Subjective Experience: A Representationist Analysis of the First-Person Perspective

    Thomas Metzinger

  27. 21. Awareness of Agency: Three Levels of Analysis

    Joülle Proust

  28. 22. The Acting Subject: Toward the Neural Basis of Social Cognition

    Vittorio Gallese

  29. Contributors
  30. Index