Thinking about Thinking
Foreword by Eric Horvitz

The capacity to think about our own thinking may lie at the heart of what it means to be both human and intelligent. Philosophers and cognitive scientists have investigated these matters for many years. Researchers in artificial intelligence have gone further, attempting to implement actual machines that mimic, simulate, and perhaps even replicate this capacity, called metareasoning. In this volume, leading authorities offer a variety of perspectives—drawn from philosophy, cognitive psychology, and computer science—on reasoning about the reasoning process.

The book offers a simple model of reasoning about reason as a framework for its discussions. Following this framework, the contributors consider metalevel control of computational activities, introspective monitoring, distributed metareasoning, and, putting all these aspects of metareasoning together, models of the self. Taken together, the chapters offer an integrated narrative on metareasoning themes from both artificial intelligence and cognitive science perspectives.

Table of Contents

  1. Foreword
  2. I. Basic Themes
  3. 1. Metareasoning

    Michael T. Cox and Anita Raja

  4. 2. There's No "Me" in "Meta" - Or Is There?

    Don Perlis

  5. 3. Metareasoning and Bounded Rationality

    Shlomo Zilberstein

  6. II. Metalevel Control
  7. 4. Learning Expertise with Bounded Rationality and Self-Awareness

    Susan L. Epstein and Smiljana Petrovic

  8. 5. Controlling Deliberation in Coordinators

    George Alexander, Anita Raja, and David Musliner

  9. 6. Goal-Directed Metacontrol for Integrated Procedure Learning

    Jihie Kim, Karen Myers, Melinda Gervasio, and Yolanda Gil

  10. 7. Metareasoning for Multispectral Satellite Image Interpretation

    Paul Robertson and Robert Laddaga

  11. 8. Metareasoning as a Formal Computational Problem

    Vincent Conitzer

  12. III. Introspective Monitoring
  13. 9. Metareasoning, Monitoring, and Self-Explanation

    Michael T. Cox

  14. 10. Metareasoning for Self-Adaptation in Intelligent Agents

    Ashok K. Goel and Joshua Jones

  15. 11. Using Introspective Reasoning to Improve CBR System Performance

    Josep Lluas Arcos, Oguz Mulayim, David B. Leake

  16. 12. The Metacognitive Loop and Reasoning about Anomalies

    Matthew D. Schmill, Michael L. Anderson, Scott Fults, Darsana Josyula, Tim Oates, Don Perlis, Hamid Shahri, Shomir Wilson, and Dean Wright

  17. IV. Distributed Metareasoning
  18. 13. Coordinating Agents' Metalevel Control

    Anita Raja, George Alexander, Victor R. Lesser, and Michael Krainin

  19. 14. The Role of Metareasoning in Achieving Effective Multiagent Coordination

    Zachary B. Rubinstein, Stephen F. Smith, and Terry L. Zimmerman

  20. 15. Distributed Metamanagement for Self-Protection and Self-Explanation

    Catriona M. Kennedy

  21. 16. Weighted Prediction Divergence for Metareasoning

    Brett J. Borghetti and Maria Gini

  22. V. Models of Self
  23. 17. Metareasoning as an Integral Part of Commonsense and Autocognitive Reasoning

    Fabrizio Morbini and Lenhart Schubert

  24. 18. Robotic Models of Self

    Justin Hart and Brian Scassellati

  25. 19. Anthropomorphic Self-Models for Metareasoning Agents

    Andrew S. Gordon, Jerry R. Hobbs, and Michael T. Cox

  26. 20. Varieties of Metacognition in Natural and Artificial Systems

    Aaron Sloman

  27. Contributors
  28. Index