Genetic Influences on Addiction

An Intermediate Phenotype Approach

Although there is scientific consensus that genetic factors play a substantial role in an individual's vulnerability to drug or alcohol addiction, specific genetic variables linked to risk or resilience remain elusive. Understanding how genetic factors contribute to addiction may require focusing on intermediary mechanisms, or intermediate phenotypes, that connect genetic variation and risk for addiction. This book offers a comprehensive review of this mechanistic-centered approach and the most promising intermediate phenotypes identified in empirical research.

The contributors first consider the most established findings in the field, including variability in drug metabolism, brain electrophysiological profiles, and subjective reactions to direct drug effects; they go on to review highly promising areas such as expectancies, attentional processing, and behavioral economic variables; and finally, they investigate more exploratory approaches, including the differential susceptibility hypothesis and epigenetic modifications. Taken together, the chapters offer a macro-level testing of the hypothesis that these alternative, mechanistic phenotypes can advance the understanding of genetic influences on addiction. The book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in a range of disciplines, including behavioral genetics, psychology, pharmacology, neuroscience, and sociology.

Contributors: John Acker, Steven R.H. Beach, Gene H. Brody, Angela D. Bryan, Megan J. Chenoweth, Danielle M. Dick, Eske D. Derks, Mary-Anne Enoch, Meg Gerrard, Frederick X. Gibbons, Thomas E. Gladwin, Mark S. Goldman, Marcus Heilig, Kent E. Hutchison, Hollis C. Karoly, Steven M. Kogan, Man Kit Lei, Susan Luczak, James MacKillop, Renee E. Magnan, Leah M. Mayo, Marcus R. Munafò, Daria Orlowska, Abraham A. Palmer, Danielle Pandika, Clarissa C. Parker, Robert A. Philibert, Lara A. Ray, Richard R. Reich, Ronald L. Simons, Courtney J. Stevens, Rachel E. Thayer, Rachel F. Tyndale, Tamara L. Wall, Reinout W. Wiers, Michael Windle, Harriet de Wit

Table of Contents

  1. Contributors
  2. 1. An Intermediate Phenotype Approach to Addiction Genetics

    James MacKillop and Marcus R. Munafo

  3. 2. Electrophysiological Intermediate Phenotypes for the Detection of Genetic Influences on Alcoholism

    Mary-Anne Enoch

  4. 3. Differential Metabolism of Alcohol as an Intermediate Phenotype of Risk for Alcohol Use Disorders: Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Variants

    Tamara L. Wall, Susan E. Luczak, Daria Orlowska, and Danielle Pandika

  5. 4. Nicotine Metabolism as an Intermediate Phenotype

    Meghan J. Chenoweth and Rachel F. Tyndale

  6. 5. Subjective Responses to Alcohol as an Endophenotype: Implications for Alcoholism Etiology and Treatment Development

    Lara A. Ray and Markus Heilig

  7. 6. Subjective Drug Effects as Intermediate Phenotypes for Substance Abuse

    Leah M. Mayo, Abraham A. Palmer, and Harriet de Wit

  8. 7. Developmental Considerations in Gene Identification Efforts

    Danielle M. Dick

  9. 8. Enhancing Addiction Genetics via Behavioral Economic Intermediate Phenotypes

    James MacKillop and John Acker

  10. 9. Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Develop Intermediate Phenotypes for Substance Use Disorders

    Rachel E. Thayer and Kent E. Hutchison

  11. 10. Implicit Cognition: An Intermediate Phenotype for Addiction?

    Reinout W. Wiers, Eske M. Derks, and Thomas E. Gladwin

  12. 11. The Role of Genetics in Addiction and the Expectancy Principle

    Mark S. Goldman and Richard R. Reich

  13. 12. Intermediate Phenotypes for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Dependence: Empirical Findings and Conceptual Issues

    Michael Windle

  14. 13. Epigenetic Effects and Intermediate Phenotypes

    Steven R. H. Beach, Meg Gerrard, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Steven M. Kogan, Frederick X. Gibbons, and Robert A. Philibert

  15. 14. Differential Sensitivity to Context: Enhances the Acquisition of Prototypes That Serve as Intermediate Phenotypes for Substance Use

    Ronald L. Simons, Man Kit Lei, Steven R. H. Beach, Gene H. Brody, Robert A. Philibert, Frederick X. Gibbons, and Meg Gerrard

  16. 15. From Genes to Behavior Change: Treatment Response as an Intermediate Phenotype

    Courtney J. Stevens, Hollis C. Karoly, Renee E. Magnan, and Angela D. Bryan

  17. 16. Using Intermediate Phenotypes to Bridge the Gap between Human and Mouse Genetics

    Clarissa C. Parker and Abraham A. Palmer

  18. Index