Dynamic Faces

Insights from Experiments and Computation

The recognition of faces is a fundamental visual function with importance for social interaction and communication. Scientific interest in facial recognition has increased dramatically over the last decade. Researchers in such fields as psychology, neurophysiology, and functional imaging have published more than 10,000 studies on face processing. Almost all of these studies focus on the processing of static pictures of faces, however, with little attention paid to the recognition of dynamic faces, faces as they change over time—a topic in neuroscience that is also relevant for a variety of technical applications, including robotics, animation, and human-computer interfaces. This volume offers a state-of-the-art, interdisciplinary overview of recent work on dynamic faces from both biological and computational perspectives.

The chapters cover a broad range of topics, including the psychophysics of dynamic face perception, results from electrophysiology and imaging, clinical deficits in patients with impairments of dynamic face processing, and computational models that provide insights about the brain mechanisms for the processing of dynamic faces. The book offers neuroscientists and biologists an essential reference for designing new experiments, and provides computer scientists with knowledge that will help them improve technical systems for the recognition, processing, synthesizing, and animating of dynamic faces.

Table of Contents

  1. Foreword

    Tomaso Poggio

  2. Introduction
  4. 1. Is Dynamic Face Perception Primary?

    Alan Johnston

  5. 2. Memory for Moving Faces: The Interplay of Two Recognition Systems

    Alice O'Toole and Dana Roark

  6. 3. Investigating the Dynamic Characteristics Important for Face Recognition

    Natalie Butcher and Karen Lander

  7. 4. Recognition of Dynamic Facial Action Probed by Visual Adaptation

    Cristoball Curio, Martin A. Giese, Martin Breidt, Mario Kleiner, and Heinrich H. Bulthoff

  8. 5. Facial Motion and Facial Form

    Barbara Knappmeyer

  9. 6. Dynamic Facial Speech: What, How, and Who?

    Harold Hill

  11. 7. Dynamic Facial Signaling: A Dialog between Brains

    David A. Leopold

  12. 8. Engaging Neocortical Networks with Dynamic Faces

    Stephen V. Shepherd and Asif A. Ghazanfar

  13. 9. Multimodal Studies Using Dynamic Faces

    Aina Puce and Charles E. Schroeder

  14. 10. Perception of Dynamic Facial Expressions and Gaze

    Patrik Vuilleumier and Ruthger Righart

  15. 11. Moving and Being Moved: The Importance of Dynamic Information in Clinical Populations

    B. de Gelder and J. Van den Stock

  17. 12. Analyzing Dynamic Faces: Key Computational Challenges

    Pawan Sinha

  18. 13. Elements for a Neural Theory of the Processing of Dynamic Faces

    Thomas Serre and Martin A. Giese

  19. 14. Insights on Spontaneous Facial Expressions from Automatic Expression Measurement

    Marian Bartlett, Gwen Littlewort, Esra Vural, Jake Whitehill, Tingfan Wu, Kang Lee, and Javier Movellan

  20. 15. Real-Time Dissociation of Facial Appearance and Dynamics during Natural Conversation

    Steven M. Boker and Jeffrey F. Cohn

  21. 16. Markerless Tracking of Dynamic 3D Scans of Faces

    Christian Walder, Martin Breidt, Heinrich H. Bulthoff, Bernhard Scholkopf, and Cristobal Curio

  22. Contributors
  23. Index