ISBN: 9780262362931 | 641 pp. | February 2021

Defining Mental Disorder

Jerome Wakefield and His Critics
Overview

The open access edition of this book was made possible by generous funding from Arcadia – a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin.

One of the most pressing theoretical problems of psychiatry is the definition of mental disorder. Jerome Wakefield's proposal that mental disorder is “harmful dysfunction” has been both influential and widely debated; philosophers have been notably skeptical about it. This volume provides the first book-length collection of responses by philosophers to Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis (HDA), offering a survey of philosophical critiques as well as extensive and detailed replies by Wakefield himself.

HDA is offered as a definition of mental disorder, but it is also the outcome of a method—conceptual analysis—and contributors first take up HDA's methodology, considering such topics as HDA's influences on the DSM, empirical support for HDA, and clinical practice. They go on to discuss HDA's ultimate goal, the demarcation between normal and abnormal; the dysfunction component of the analysis, addressing issues that include developmental plasticity, autism and neurodiversity, and the science of salience; and the harmful component, examining harmless dysfunction, normal variation, medicalization, and other questions. Wakefield offers substantive responses to each chapter.

Contributors

Rachel Cooper, Andreas De Block, Steeves Demazeux, Leen De Vreese, Luc Faucher, Denis Forest, Justin Garson, Philip Gerrans, Harold Kincaid, Maël Lemoine, Dominic Murphy, Jonathan Sholll, Tim Thornton, Jerome Wakefield, Peter Zachar

 

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

    Denis Forest, Luc Faucher

  2. Wakefield Critiques: Introductory Comments

    Jerome Wakefield

  3. I. On Conceptual Analysis
  4. 1. DSM in the Light of HDA (and Conversely)

    Steeves Demazeux

  5. 2. From Ribot and Dupré to Spitzer and RDoC: Does the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis Possess Historical Explanatory Power? Reply to Steeves Demazeux

    Jerome Wakefield

  6. 3. Facts, Facts, Facts: HD Analysis Goes Factual

    Luc Faucher

  7. 4. Do the Empirical Facts Support the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis? Reply to Luc Faucher

    Jerome Wakefield

  8. 5. Against the Disorder/Nondisorder Dichotomy

    Leen De Vreese

  9. 6. Do Clinicians Understand the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis of Mental Disorder? Reply to Leen De Vreese

    Jerome Wakefield

  10. 7. Doing without “Disorder” in the Study of Psychopathology

    Harold Kincaid

  11. 8. Quinian Qualms, or Does Psychiatry Really Need the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis? Reply to Harold Kincaid

    Jerome Wakefield

  12. II. The Demarcation Problem
  13. 9. Psychiatric Disorders and the Imperfect Community: A Nominalist HDA

    Peter Zachar

  14. 10. Can a Nonessentialist Neo-Empiricist Analysis of Mental Disorder Replace the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis? Reply to Peter Zachar

    Jerome Wakefield

  15. III. The Dysfunction Component
  16. 11. Is the Dysfunction Component of the “Harmful Dysfunction Analysis” Stipulative?

    Maël Lemoine

  17. 12. Is the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis Descriptive or Stipulative, and Is the HDA or BST the Better Naturalist Account of Dysfunction? Reply to Maël Lemoine

    Jerome Wakefield

  18. 13. Function and Dysfunction

    Dominic Murphy

  19. 14. Can Causal Role Functions Yield Objective Judgments of Medical Dysfunction and Replace the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis’s Evolutionary Component? Reply to Dominic Murphy

    Jerome Wakefield

  20. 15. Do the Works of Carl Craver or Marcel Weber Explain How Causal Role Functions Can Provide Objective Medical Judgments of Dysfunction? Supplementary Reply to Dominic Murphy

    Jerome Wakefield

  21. 16. The Developmental Plasticity Challenge to Wakefield’s View

    Justin Garson

  22. 17. Does Developmental Plasticity Pose a Challenge to the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis? Reply to Justin Garson

    Jerome Wakefield

  23. 18. Biological Function Hierarchies and Indeterminacy of Dysfunction: Supplementary Reply to Justin Garson

    Jerome Wakefield

  24. 19. Harmful Dysfunction and the Science of Salience: Adaptations and Adaptationism

    Philip Gerrans

  25. 20. Are Cognitive Neuroscience and the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis Competitors or Allies? Reply to Philip Gerrans

    Jerome Wakefield

  26. 21. Autistic Spectrum, Normal Variation, and Harmful Dysfunction

    Denis Forest

  27. 22. Do the Challenges of Autism and Neurodiversity Pose an Objection to the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis? Reply to Denis Forest

    Jerome Wakefield

  28. 23. Naturalism and Dysfunction

    Tim Thornton

  29. 24. Is Indeterminacy of Biological Function an Objection to the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis? Reply to Tim Thornton

    Jerome Wakefield

  30. IV. The Harmful Component
  31. 25. Harmless Dysfunctions and the Problem of Normal Variation

    Andreas De Block, Jonathon Sholl

  32. 26. Can the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis Distinguish Problematic Normal Variation from Disorder? Reply to Andreas De Block and Jonathan Sholl

    Jerome Wakefield

  33. 27. On Harm

    Rachel Cooper

  34. 28. Must Social Values Play a Role in the Harm Component of the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis? Reply to Rachel Cooper

    Jerome Wakefield

  35. 29. Are There Naturally Selected Disorders? Supplementary Reply to Rachel Cooper

    Jerome Wakefield

  36. Contributors

    Rachel Cooper, Andreas De Block, Steeves Demazeux, Leen De Vreese, Luc Faucher, Denis Forest, Justin Garson, Philip Gerrans, Harold Kincaid, Maël Lemoine, Dominic Murphy, Jonathan Sholl, Tim Thornton, Peter Zachar

  37. Index